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How To Treat Abnormalities in Thyroid?

Hashimoto thyroiditisThyroiditis is a disorder caused by the inflammation and swelling of the thyroid. It can arise due to a variety of causes. There are different types of this disease, classified according to the cause. Some common types of this ailment are given below:

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis: this disease is also called chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is an autoimmune disorder that occurs due to a misdirected immune system that attacks the body’s own normal cells, causing damage to the thyroid gland. It is most common in people between the age of 30 and 50 years.
  • Subacute thyroiditis: Patients having this problem usually have an enlarged thyroid gland, along with severe pain and tenderness. The enlargement is often asymmetric. This is usually followed by a temporary phase of hypothyroidism. About 5% of people having this problem suffer a recurrence over a 20-year period. The peak incidence of this disease is in the summer.
  • Painless thyroiditis: This is also called silent thyroiditis. It is an autoimmune process that presents with the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis like increased sweating and weight loss. However, the pain and tenderness are often absent.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: This type is pathologically similar to painless thyroid inflammation and has a similar clinical presentation. But, its onset occurs within few months after childbirth. It usually presents with a classic tri-phasic or 3-phased pattern, with thyrotoxicosis in the initial phase, followed by a phase of hypothyroidism, which is later followed by a phase of euthyroidism, in which the normal functions of the gland are restored. Most women having this problem become normal within 1 year of delivery. However, about 25% of them develop hypothyroidism in the next 10 years.
  • Acute suppurative thyroiditis: it is a rare disorder that occurs because of an infection in the thyroid. Patients have neck pain, redness of the overlying skin, tenderness and fever. The common bacteria causing this ailment are Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. A pre-existing fistula or an abnormal passage in the thyroid, or any penetrating wound in the neck, may increase the risk of developing this problem.
  • Riedel thyroiditis: this condition is also called invasive fibrous thyroid disease. It usually appears as a slowly enlarging mass in the neck. The mass is stony hard. This is more common in middle-aged and older individuals.
  • Drug-induced: patients may suffer from this ailment due to the use of some medications like lithium and amiodarone.

How to treat?

Patients are advised to use Levothroid for the management of Hashimoto and subacute thyroiditis. This drug can also be used for managing goiter, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and thyroid nodules. It helps by regulating the levels of thyroid hormones in the body.

Dosage recommendations:

Patients can use Levothroid in a dose of 12.5 to 125 mcg per day. Patients can consult a physician for further information about the dosage of this drug.

Some forms of this condition, especially Hashimoto thyroiditis, if left untreated, can cause permanent hypothyroidism. Use of Levothroid can help patients in controlling the thyroid functions and avoiding any further complications.

 
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Posted by on August 8, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Emergency care tips for epilepsy patients

There are many who can tell about their startling experience when, for the first time, they saw somebody having an attack of epilepsy. Epilepsy occurs due to excessive electrical activity in the brain. It causes involuntary alterations in behavior and consciousness.

For the first timers, seeing someone having an attack of convulsions is frightening and at the same time confusing. They do not understand how they can help the patient. So, here are some guidelines about how you can actively help someone having an attack of epilepsy, rather than being a mere bystander.

  • Loosen clothing around the patient’s neck
  • Do not try to restrain or hold down the patient
  • Do not insert any object in his or her mouth
  • Remove sharp objects such as glasses and furniture from around the patient to prevent injury
  • Provide a cushion to the head
  • Protect the person from falling by providing gentle support
  • Once the attack subsides, lay the person on his or her side in order to keep the airways open and to prevent inhalation of secretions from the mouth and the stomach
  • Never leave the person alone after a seizure
  • Make sure he or she is breathing well. If not, seek immediate medical attention.
  • Observe the duration of the attack, the parts of the body involved and the direction of the movements of the head, so that you can provide this information to the treating doctor

If you are suffering from epilepsy, here’s a list of things you can do to prevent the attacks and to protect yourself from harm if you get one.

  • Let those around you, including your colleagues, be aware of your illness. This will ensure better preparedness for taking care of you in case of emergencies.
  • Always carry medical identification, especially when you are out of town or not around your close ones
  • Avoid potential dangers such as moving machinery, at home or work. Avoid visiting places of high altitude
  • Take your medications exactly as prescribed. Most patients with epilepsy are advised to use anti-epilepsy drugs like Trileptal. It contains oxcarbazepine, which helps to prevent convulsions by minimizing the repetitive propagation of impulses through the nervous system. This medicine is usually prescribed in a dose of 300 mg, 2 times a day. However, it is best to start using Trileptal after consulting your doctor about its dosage.
  • Avoid alcohol. It is known to interfere with the action of most anti-epilepsy drugs resulting in serious reaction.
  • Remain active, but choose your sports and other activities intelligently

If you know someone suffering from epilepsy, I am sure by now you are well versed with what needs to be done if the patient gets an attack. If you are suffering from it, you can let your close friends and relatives know about these guidelines so that you are better off when you get the attack. And above all, don’t forget to take anti-epilepsy medications like Trileptal as they will be your prime guardians against epilepsy.

 

 
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Posted by on June 27, 2013 in Anti Convulsant

 

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Why do Triglycerides matter & Simple ways of Lowering them

If you thought that keeping a watch on your cholesterol and blood pressure levels was enough to ensure good health, you might be wrong. There’s another vital body compound that you ought to monitor, and that’s triglycerides.

index

What are Triglycerides?

Triglycerides may be described as a form of fat located in the blood. When you consume food, the body converts any unneeded calories into triglycerides straightaway. They are stored in the fat cells. Hence, individuals who consume more calories than they can burn, especially fats and carbohydrates are likely to have high triglycerides.

So how do you know if these lipids are in the normal range or not? A quick blood test can help to divulge the results. Generally, an amount of less than 150 mg/dL (milligram per deciliter) is considered normal whereas those with extremely high triglycerides levels of more than 200 mg/dL or 500 mg/dL must immediately take the required steps to lower them.

Are these fatty compounds dangerous?

Even though it’s not completely clear yet, experts believe that greater quantities of these fats in the body could cause the arteries to coagulate or result in atherosclerosis (clotting in blood vessels) that can maximize the risk of heart attack or stroke.

In addition, high triglycerides may also be an indicator of other ailments such as obesity which consequently can increase one’s chances of developing diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease.

Ways of lowering triglycerides:

Minor changes in your lifestyle can considerably aid to bring down these lipid levels. These modifications include:

  • Get rid of the excess weight right away if you are obese. Even a modest weight loss of 5-15 pounds can assist to reduce the amount of triglycerides. Devise a suitable weight-reduction plan under the guidance of the family doctor
  • Watch what you eat. The best way to stay healthy is to include fresh veggies, fruits, nuts, cereals, whole-grains in your food regime. Banish white flour, sugary foodstuffs, high-cholesterol meats, etc. Eat brown rice or whole-wheat bread instead of the white variety. Opt for tuna, salmon, and mackerel, which are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, in place of red meat
  • The more the calories consumed, higher the quantity of unwanted fats. Cut down on calories
  • Limit consumption of alcohol. Not only are alcoholic beverages high in sugar and calories, but they also have a strong effect on triglycerides
  • Exercise or engage in some kind of physical activity on a regular basis as this helps you burn calories and maintain a steady weight. Activities such as brisk walking or running, swimming, tennis, cycling, aerobics etc. are extremely advantageous

In addition to lifestyle changes, your healthcare provider might also recommend taking medicines such as Tricor which are effective in to bring high triglycerides under control. Tricor is offered in tablet and capsule form, in different strengths. Follow the therapy plan given by the physician.

Get your triglycerides checked today and if they are above the normal range, visit your physician at the earliest. An early diagnosis is crucial to prevent any health complications later.

 
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Posted by on June 26, 2013 in Heart and blood pressure

 

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Tips to help control the ‘grave’ effects of Myasthenia gravis

Muscles form a major part of our body system and help us move about and perform different activities and functions. Without properly functioning muscles, a person has to face multiple problems in performing simple daily activities and may even become dependant on others. Something similar to this happens in a disease called Myasthenia gravis.

myasthenia-gravis

This is a chronic neuromuscular disease in which patients develop varying degrees of muscle weakness. The weakness increases during periods of physical activities and improves after taking rest. The muscle weakness can sometimes be extremely severe or ‘grave’ as the name of the disease implies.

Conserving your energy by balancing and modifying your activities as given below can help you cope with the symptoms of myasthenia gravis in a better way.

  • Adjust your meal times. A patient of myasthenia gravis should ideally eat when his or her muscle strength is good. So, plan your eating routine taking this into consideration. Chew your food slowly and pause between bites of food.
  • Use safety precautions at home. Move all loose rugs out of places where you walk. Install railings or grab bars next to the bathtub and the steps. Keep the sidewalks and driveways outside your home cleared of snow, leaves and other potential debris.
  • Use electric appliances wherever possible. This will help you conserve your energy. For example; you can try using electric can openers or an electric toothbrush.
  • Consider wearing an eye patch if the disease has affected the muscles in the eyes, causing double vision. You can wear it while writing, reading or watching television. Switch the eye patch to the other eye periodically to prevent strain on the eyes.
  • Plan your shopping and other errands to coincide with the times at which your energy levels are high.

Besides this, you also need to follow some guidelines to keep yourself in the best health and to prevent complications:

  • Maintain a healthy diet. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits. Reduce your intake of proteins to 10% of your total calorie consumption. Eliminate milk and milk products. Ginger and garlic have properties that help to improve the symptoms of this disease. Include them in your daily diet.
  • Take your medicines on time. Your physician may prescribe drugs like Mestinon for strengthening your muscles. This drug contains Pyridostigmine Bromide that works by preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine in the body. The average dose of Mestinon is ten 60-mg tablets everyday. They should be spaced throughout the day so as to achieve good muscle strength when required. It is advisable to start using this medicine after consulting a physician regarding its dosage instructions.
  • Find ways to relax. Stress can worsen your condition. You can try deep breathing exercises provided they do not exhaust you. Yoga and meditation are alternative ways to relax your mind off stress.

This disease was named ‘Myasthenia Gravis’ keeping in mind the grave nature of the muscle weakness it causes. Today, with drugs like Mestinon, most cases of this condition are not as grave and can be controlled successfully.

 
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Posted by on May 20, 2013 in Pain Relief

 

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Young Men, Hypertension and Sexual Problems

If you’re below 35 and feel you are in good health, yet your physician says your blood pressure is on the higher side. You would think that you should come back and have it checked once again. Being a young man full of energy, you figure that 5 years would be soon enough. After all, isn’t hypertension an old man’s disease?

heart  attack symptoms

No longer! Nowadays an increasing number of young men are diagnosed with this disease, yet they refuse to accept it. However, knowing the complications it can cause when left untreated may provide enough motivation for accepting the diagnosis and for initiating treatment.

What’s in store for these men?

They may have a higher risk of:

  • Heart attacks
  • Cerebrovascular stroke causing paralysis and prolonged immobility
  • Kidney failure
  • Vision problems that may even cause blindness
  • Premature death

Another Complication Worth Considering

If the possibility of premature death doesn’t grab your attention, perhaps this will: Recent studies have proved that men with hypertension were 2.5 times more likely to develop sexual difficulties like erectile dysfunction, than men with normal blood pressure.

Erectile problems continue to worsen over time as the high blood pressure causes progressive damage to the inner lining of the blood vessels, making them narrow and hard. This limits the flow of blood to the penis. As a result of this, men have problems in achieving a sustained erection. Hypertension can also reduce their sexual desire and interfere with ejaculation.

Don’t Wait 5 Years:

The message is clear. Do not wait for 5 years. If you are diagnosed with hypertension, just accept it. You may get it checked once again, after about 2 days or a week. But, don’t wait longer than that. The longer you wait, the greater will be the complications. So, take steps to keep your blood pressure in control.

Promote overall health:

  • Stop smoking or using tobacco
  • Avoid alcohol consumption
  • Eat healthy foods
  • Lose those extra pounds of weight
  • Reduce the amount of salt in your diet
  • Exercise regularly

Of course, once you achieve a leaner and a healthier body, your confidence will receive a boost. This will help you feel more attractive and could also improve your sex life.

Never ignore or skip your medications:

Most patients with high blood pressure are advised to use antihypertensive drugs, e.g. Zebeta. It contains bisoprolol fumarate, which helps by preventing the 2 neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and epinephrine, from binding to certain receptors on the nerves.

The usual initial dose of Zebeta is 2.5 to 5 mg, once daily. Patients are advised to contact their doctor who, based on their blood pressure, will be able to prescribe the right dose.

Young men are less likely to accept they have hypertension and undergo treatment. However, leaving it untreated can cause a host of problems including erectile dysfunction, heart attacks and stroke. On the other hand, treatment by using Zebeta can help them prevent such unpleasant, dangerous complications and prolong their lives.

 

 
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Posted by on May 15, 2013 in Heart and blood pressure

 

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Tips to get rid of kidney stones

The intensity of the pain that comes on when a small stone (calculus) tries to make its way through the urinary tract cannot be described in simple words. Severe, excruciating, gut wrenching are just some words that can come near to describing this pain. You can avoid this pain by knowing why renal calculi are formed and what you can do to prevent them.

Renal calculi are deposits of small, hard particles formed inside your kidneys. The stones are mainly composed of minerals and acid salts. Often, they are formed when the urine becomes too concentrated, allowing minerals and salts to crystallize and stick together.

Types of stones:

Calculi are broadly classified into two major groups, radio-opaque and radiolucent. Radio-opaque calculi are visible on standard x-rays while radiolucent calculi can not be detected on standard x-rays. They are visible only on CT Scans. The examples of radio-opaque calculus are Calcium Oxalate, Calcium Phosphate and Struvite calculi. Common radiolucent calculi include Uric Acid, Triamterene and Xanthine stones.

What symptoms may be present when one has renal calculi?

  • Pain that radiates to the groins
  • Pain that comes in waves
  • Pain while passing urine
  • Pink or red urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Difficulty passing urine

Simple tips to prevent kidney stones:

  • The most effective non-medication therapy for this problem is increasing fluid intake. If you live in a dry and hot climate or if you exercise frequently, you should drink even more water to produce a sufficient amount of urine. The best way to know if you are drinking enough water is to check the appearance of your urine. If it is clear and light, you’re drinking enough water.
  • Medical experts advise patients to decrease their protein intake because excess proteins in the body can contribute to calcium based and uric acid stones. It is best to limit the intake to maximum 8 ounces of pork, beef, poultry or fish per day.
  • Most patients stop consuming foods containing calcium. However, it has been proved that calcium in food does not affect your risk of calculi. So, you can continue eating calcium-rich foods. But, you should avoid taking calcium supplements when not required otherwise.
  • Decrease your intake of Oxalate especially if you have a tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Oxalate rich foods include rhubarb, beets, spinach, chocolate, tea and peanuts. 

Drugs that prevent kidney calculus:

Passing kidney stones in urine can be unbearably painful. Depending on the composition of the calculus, you may need to take medications like Zyloprim. This medication contains allopurinol and works by preventing the production of uric acid.

Patients are usually prescribed Zyloprim in a dose of 200 to 300 mg per day. You should consult your doctor to know the right dose suitable for your specific condition.

If you have someone close in your family with a history of renal calculi, you have more chances of developing it. Dietary modifications and oral medications like Zyloprim can help reduce or eliminate the chance of this condition.

 
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Posted by on April 30, 2013 in Anti gout

 

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Epilepsy in relation to sports and other activities

Most patients with epilepsy worry that they will not be able to play sports or live a normal life. Even parents of children with epilepsy have the mistaken impression that sports can be dangerous for their child. But sports and other physical activities are an important part of our lives and there is no hard and fast rule that patients with this disease should not engage in such activities. They only need to take some precautions, keeping in mind the possible dangerous consequences.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy (also called seizures or convulsions) is caused by electrical disturbances occurring in the brain. Partial seizures, also called focal seizures, occur when the electrical disturbance remains in a limited part of the brain. The partial convulsions sometimes turn into generalized seizures, affecting the whole brain.

Key Things about Partial Seizures

•    They usually don’t last longer than a minute or two
•    They affect only one side or part of the body such as the legs, the hands or the face
•    They end naturally
•    You can’t stop them

What are the characteristic symptoms of partial convulsions?

•    Abnormal muscle twitching
•    Turning head sideways
•    Staring spells
•    Forced turning of the head
•    Sweating
•    Dilated pupils
•    Flushed face
•    Rapid pulse

Epilepsy and outdoor activities:

•    Patients with epilepsy have to take a few extra precautions to ensure their safety, especially while being around heights and water. Climbing a ladder or a tree can be dangerous for these patients. The general advice is that they should avoid these activities if it’s above their head level.

•    For most nervous and overcautious patients, boating and swimming seem out of the question. But, as long as there is a lifeguard in the pool to supervise, these activities should be okay. When on boats, they should wear a life jacket compulsorily even if they know swimming.

Step back sometimes:

Parents of children with epilepsy usually do not like the idea of their child engaging in sports, or trying out for the basketball team. But being so overprotective is unfair to the child as it restricts his or her options. Such restrictions can be more damaging for the child, psychologically and socially, than the epilepsy itself. Hence, it is necessary to step back sometimes and let them do what they like, while taking the necessary precautions.

Treatment for better control and safety:

Taking medications like Trileptal is a great way for seizure treatment. The oxcarbazepine contained in this medicine helps control seizures by stabilizing electrical activity in the brain.

The usual prescribed dose of Trileptal is 300 mg, twice a day. Patients aged 2 to 16 years can be started on a daily dose of 8 to10 mg per kg weight. Patients are advised to consult their doctor to know the exact dose.

Having a seizure on the playing field is not dangerous, although it can be embarrassing. But experiencing an attack while rock-climbing could be fatal! But, if you are using the right medicines such as Trileptal, your seizures will be under control and the risks on the field will be reduced.

 
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Posted by on April 27, 2013 in Anti Convulsant

 

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